INDIA – How to Get a Pilot License After 35 Min in the Air.

Anupam Verma has a certificate that shows he has flown an aircraft for 360 hours. He says he got it after sitting in the co-pilot’s seat for just 35 minutes.

He’s one of dozens of pilots in the country who obtained certificates showing inflated flying hours and ground training, according to court documents and interviews with pilots, regulators and industry analysts. The son of a poor farmer, Verma was given a 2.8 million-rupee ($44,000) subsidy by the Indian government to learn to fly a commercial jet.

“What if I was flying and had an emergency? I wouldn’t even know how or where to land,” Verma, 25, said in an interview. “We’d kill not only the passengers, but we might crash in a village and kill even more people.”

The spotlight on aviation safety has swung from aircraft reliability to pilot reliability in the past few years after a series of disasters that were thought to be either deliberate acts of destruction, or the result of inadequate training. The latest, in March, killed 150 people when Germanwings co-pilot Andreas Lubitz appears to have locked his captain out of the cockpit and flown his jet into a mountain.

Concern about the quality of India’s pilots has been building over the past decade as a proliferation of budget airlines created demand for hundreds of new pilots. In 2011, the government reviewed the licenses of all 4,000-plus airline pilots in the country, as police investigated at least 18 people suspected of using forged documents to win promotions or certification. The findings of the review were not made public.

India Under Fire for Quality of Airline Pilots
“The fudging of log books is rampant both in airlines and in flying clubs,” said Mohan Ranganathan, a former commercial pilot and aviation safety consultant based in Chennai. He said the 2011 audit found violations in most flying clubs in the country. “Hours were logged with aircraft not even in airworthy condition. One aircraft had no engines but several hundred hours were logged.”
Asked about the continued use of fake certificates, India’s Director General of Civil Aviation, M. Sathiyavathy, said on April 24 the directorate would be conducting a new audit that would require the “recertification of all the flying schools.”

Fake Flying
Over logging has been common practice in India since the 1960s, according to a retired commander who has flown in India for over 40 years and asked not to be named because the information was confidential. With the increase in budget airlines the typical number of faked hours rose from about 20 hours to a peak of as much as 150, he said.

He said airlines can soon tell if a pilot has faked certificates because they don’t have basic skills, but the carrier can’t fire them because they have DGCA licenses. To bring them up to scratch, airlines have to do expensive corrective training, he said.

Of India’s seven major airlines, Tata SIA Airlines Ltd.’s Vistara said it is aware of over logging, but tests all new pilots and provides its own training. SpiceJet Ltd. said it only hires from prestigious air schools and tests and trains all new pilots. IndiGo, Air India Ltd., Jet Airways India Ltd. and AirAsia India Ltd. didn’t respond to e-mails and phone calls about the issue. Go Airlines India Pvt. Ltd. declined to comment.

The rise of budget carriers not only increased demand for pilots, it also sparked a price war that wiped out the industry’s profit. India’s carriers have lost $10 billion in the past seven years as they offered base fares as low as 1 rupee (2 cents). That works out as a loss of about $22 for each passenger that stepped on board during the period, according to the Sydney-based CAPA Centre for Aviation.

Yet, for people like Verma, the award of a government grant to learn to fly is a chance to escape poverty. His father supports his family of seven by selling vegetables grown on a plot of land half the size of a football field. Most of his siblings only work part-time to supplement the income.

Yash Air
Verma enrolled in December 2009 at Yash Air, a flying school in the city of Indore, halfway between Mumbai and Delhi. On his first day, he said he was taken on a 35-minute “air-experience” flight to give him a feel of what it was like to be in a plane. Moments after the aircraft landed, he was handed a certificate of flying for 360 hours, he said in an interview on June 1. He said he was told he will do the actual flying later during the course, but that he eventually flew for just 3 hours at the school.

When Verma and other trainee pilots realized they weren’t going to gain the necessary flying experience, they complained to the school and Verma sued for return of the money he paid. The Allahabad High Court ordered that his fees be returned, according to a court order in February this year.

“Several discrepancies have been noticed with regard to over logging of flight details, flight authorization, maintenance of various log books and fuel consumption registers,” according to a DGCA enquiry into the complaints about Yash Air, dated June 6, 2014, a copy of which was given to Bloomberg News.

On May 19, 2010, a qualified pilot from Yash Air took a trainee pilot on a “joy ride” in a Cessna-152 and hit a power line, according to the DGCA’s final report into the accident. The two-seater, single-engined trainer crashed into a dry river bed, splitting into five pieces and killing the men. They were both about 20 years old, according to the report, dated Dec. 17, 2010.

The owner and chief trainer at the school, Yash Raj Tongia, was appointed as the DGCA’s director of flying and training in 2011, even though his flying skills were “below standard,” the June 2014 DGCA report said.

Court Ruling
Yash Air changed its name to Centaur Aviation Academy Pvt. Ltd. after the allegations were made in 2010, according to the Allahabad High Court. Yash Air issued certificates to its students without conducting ground classes and flying training, the court said in December 2014.

Attempts to get the flying school or Tongia to comment on Verma’s claims were unsuccessful. Calls to Tongia’s mobile phone number listed in the court documents were unanswered. Kshemendra Shukla, one of the lawyers who represents Yash Air, said he doesn’t have any contact number for Tongia. He didn’t respond to questions concerning Yash Air.

Telephone numbers for Yash Air and Centaur Aviation were no longer in service. The DGCA said Centaur Aviation’s approval remains suspended.

Even with the minimum 200 hours mandated by the Indian government, pilots would be unlikely to have experienced all of the weather and other conditions they’re likely to meet flying a commercial jet, said Neil Hansford, an aviation consultant, who has worked in the industry in Asia, Europe and his home country, Australia since 1984.

Airlines should hire pilots with at least 1,000 hours of flying time and preferably match the 1,500 hours mandated by Qantas Airways Ltd., he said. Pilots in countries like Australia often gain years of experience in general aviation — delivering mail to remote areas, ferrying mine workers or in the Royal Flying Doctor Service — before flying jetliners.

That will test a pilot in a variety of conditions, so “when th chips are down, they still remember the basics of stick-and-rudder flying,” Hansford said. “The wrong time to be challenged is when you have 300 people behind you.”

Asian Carriers
For budget airlines in Asia, that’s often not an option. Singapore’s Tiger Airways Holding Ltd. said it hires holders of multi-crew or commercial pilot licenses with about 200 flying hours and then gives them further training.

Full-service carrier Asiana Airlines Inc., based in Seoul, looks for at least 300 hours, said spokesman Daewoong Im. “Realistically, it’s difficult to get a non-military person with more than 300 flying hours,” he said.

Carriers also use simulators and other ground training to improve pilots’ experience.

In India, many private Indian flying schools began as clubs that trained pilots without formal regulations. While schools in the U.S. use a Hobbs Meter, which automatically logs flight times and other data for training aircraft, some Indian schools still enter flight times by hand, making it easier to falsify data. Indian flying academies that falsify data run cars on aviation fuel to avoid a mismatch between flight times and fuel consumption, said three people who have worked directly with flying schools in the country.

India’s government has made successive efforts to stamp out false documentation and improve safety in the industry. After the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration downgraded India’s safety rating in 2014 on concerns over insufficient manpower, India hired more safety inspectors and carried out a fresh audit of its airlines. The FAA restored India to its top safety tier in April.

Fewer Accidents
Since 2000, the number of fatal aviation accidents in India has declined, data from Aviation Safety Network show. The last major airline disaster was in 2010, when an Air India Express plane overshot the runway in the city of Mangalore and burst into flames, killing 158 people.

India is putting in “a lot of effort” to ensure safety of airline passengers and student pilots, civil aviation chief Sathiyavathy told reporters on April 24. The DGCA didn’t respond to phone calls and text messages asking for comment on the issue of fake certificates.

That hasn’t stopped under-trained pilots applying for jobs with the nation’s biggest airlines. One qualified pilot, who asked not to be named because it may harm his career, said he completed fewer than 120 of the 200 hours his certificates say he has done. He said he is in the process of applying to fly for IndiGo, the nation’s biggest carrier.

Another pilot, who said his certificates showed an inflated number of hours for solo flights, applied to Air India.

Neither of the two pilots has been hired by the airlines.

As for Verma, he said he passed the entrance exam to the government-owned Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Akademi in Uttar Pradesh. He’s looking forward to finally learning to fly this year.

Source: Anurak Kotoki – Bloomberg

Indian Pilots and the PPC

Indian airlines currently have almost 350 commercial pilots flying the skies with lapsed or invalid licences due to their failure to to renew their pilot’s proficiency check – PPC.
The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is now contemplating action against the heads of training department of these airlines, while asking the carriers to complete the required training of pilots in a time-bound manner.

“All Indian carriers — Jet, Air India, SpiceJet, GoAir and IndiGo (in this order)—have some pilots who have not completed all checks required to keep their flying licences valid. While Jet and AI have 131 and over 100 such pilots, respectively, the three low cost have almost 100 cases. Now, we have written to AirAsia India and Air Costa to tell us if they too have any such pilots,” said a senior official, adding that in all there would be over 350 pilots with invalid licences.

DGCA chief Prabhat Kumar is learnt to be contemplating action against the training heads of airlines, just like he had ordered removal of Jet’s training chief last month after 131 pilots of that airline were found to be flying even after expiry of validity of their last pilot proficiency check (PPC). This test is required to be given every six months and Pilots are not supposed to fly without a valid PPC. The action will be decided when the data from all airlines comes in.

On its part, AI said that the issue arose after the DGCA last September made it mandatory for pilots to give the PPC every six months. This check was earlier also required to be given bi-annually but the first one in first eight months of the year and the second in last four. “This new six-monthly check would have required us to renew nearly 800 licences overnight, which was not possible. All licences valid before this CAR has been renewed uptil October 2014 as per the old rule by DGCA,” the AI statement said.

AI added that all the licences have been renewed till date. “At present, therefore, there are no pilots flying without a valid licence,” the airline statement said.

Source: The Times of India
Photo: Weekly Times of India

Russian airlines hire 200 foreign pilots

The appointments were made possible thanks to a recent change in the rules. Analysts believe this decision will allow airlines to cut spending on training pilots, who have not accumulated the required amount of flight hours.

Major Russian airlines have taken advantage of a change in legislation to hire 200 foreign pilots, the Federal Air Transport Agency (Rosaviatsia), has announced.

According to an official statement circulated by the agency’s press service, the biggest number of foreign pilots have been hired by Aeroflot (a total of 80), with Russia’s second-biggest airline, Transaero, coming a close second with 67 foreign recruits.

The other airlines filed considerably fewer applications. For example, the Siberian airline Utair will be able to hire 14 foreign pilots, with KogalymAvia and Vim-AVIA, which specialize in charter flights, getting seven pilots each.

Most of the pilots will be arriving from Western Europe, the Russian business daily Vedomosti reports. For example, according to the paper, Aeroflot has hired most of its new pilots in Germany.
“Russian airlines have been lobbying for allowing foreign pilots onto the domestic market for about three years. The most interested parties were Aeroflot and Transaero, the country’s biggest carriers,” says UFS IC analyst Anna Milostnova.

According to her, the main reason behind these recent amendments to the air transport legislation is the rapid growth of the Russian aviation industry, by an average 15-20 percent a year, which has resulted in a shortage of pilots qualified to serve as captains. For example, Aeroflot estimated the shortage of first pilots at 1,000 people, Milostnova says.

In the spring of 2014, Rosaviatsia allowed Russian airlines to hire 200 foreign pilots every year over a period of five years.

Under the new procedure, airlines submitted applications for hiring foreign pilots to the Federal Air Transport Agency, while the agency decided how many pilots each airline could hire. The decision on each airline was taken through an algorithm based on the company’s air traffic in 2013, Rosaviatsia explained.

Now Rosaviatsia will hand over the applications to the Federal Migration Service (which issues work permits to foreigners) and the airlines will be able to sign contracts with foreign pilots. Further applications to hire foreign pilots can be filed next year.

Previously, Russian airlines were banned from hiring foreign pilots. However, in 2013, the ban was lifted for a period of five years. Interestingly, at first Rosaviatsia planned to hire 1,100-1,500 foreign pilots every year, but in the end, the figure was significantly cut.

“Foreign pilots must have been offered a competitive salary, which may even be higher than in Europe, and an attractive benefits package,” says leading analyst with Finam Management Dmitry Baranov.
Furthermore, he continues, a system of additional benefits may have been set up for foreign pilots. Anna Milostnova agrees.

“Russian airlines realize that in order to hire European pilots, they will have to offer them attractive conditions. Some surveys have shown that in major Russian airlines, pilots’ remuneration is in no way inferior to their European counterparts,” she says.

At the same time, experts stress, there is no shortage of pilots in Russia per se, but there is a shortage of pilots with a large number of flight hours.

“Russia did not and does not have a shortage of pilots in general. However, airlines do not seem to be prepared to spend money on retraining pilots to qualify as captains,” explains Milostnova.
In Europe, the aviation industry is more mature and grows at a slower pace than in Russia, just 5 percent a year, she continues.

“For Russian airlines, the opportunity to hire foreign pilots is, of course, a big plus. In addition to filling the gap, it will also increase completion among pilots,” Milostnova concludes.

Source & Pic: Russia & India Report

Jet Airways Pilots Launch Their Own Website for Incident Analysis

Criticizing sections of the media for misreporting on a recent incident involving loss of altitude by a plane, the pilot’s union of Jet Airways today said it is forming a “technical site” to provide the right perspective on civil aviation issues.

The National Aviation Guild (NAG), the Jet pilots’ union, said a 2,900ft drop in altitude by a Jet Airways Boeing 777 last month was erroneously reported as a 5,000ft plunge by the media.

It said while the reasons for the sudden loss of altitude by the flight are still being investigated, the loss of altitude at 800ft per minute “is less than prescribed for a controlled radar environment.”
Stories about the 5,000 ft drop got circulated due to the media’s reliance on a “publicity hungry” official from the civil aviation regulator DGCA, it alleged.

The Captain was having his “controlled rest” and was not breaking any norm, while the first officer was also not playing on her tablet as being reported, adding that the tablets are used as a working tool by all pilots.
“We would request you not to conduct a trial by media. We would request you to follow the principles of natural justice and give a fair chance to the all the pilots,” it appealed to the media.

In order to get the right perspective across on such events, the union said it is sensitive to the difficulties on analysis faced by the media, which generally goes to retired military aviators for the perspective.
Stating that issues in civil aviation are different in nature, it decided to set up a technical site to comment on
happenings in the civil aviation sector.

“We have formed a technical site which consists of type rated examiners of most types of aircraft flown in India and would be able to provide a more authentic version of the events that happen in the civil aviation sector in India,” it said in the statement.

A Jet Airways plane from Mumbai to Brussels, with around 280 passengers on board, had lost altitude over the Turkish airspace in early August.

Terming it a “serious incident”, aviation regulator DGCA had suspended the two pilots and initiated a probe into the incident.

Source & Pic:  Economic India Times

China ‘will not accept’ carbon tax on EU flights: report

(BEIJING) – China will not pay for CO2 emissions by its airlines on flights within Europe, a top civil aviation official reportedly said after the European Commission warned eight Chinese firms face fines for nonpayment.

The world’s second largest economy “will not accept any unilateral and compulsory market measures”, Yan Mingchi, deputy director-general of the legal and regulation department at the Civil Aviation Administration of China, told an aviation forum in Beijing Friday, the China Daily newspaper reported.

He said “airlines in developing countries should be provided with financial and technological support in their efforts at coping with the effects of climate change”.

The European Commission said Friday eight Chinese and two Indian airlines face fines totalling 2.4 million euros ($3.1 million) for not paying for their greenhouse gas emissions on flights within the bloc.

It said member states could fine the firms, including Chinese flag carrier Air China, under the terms of the EU‘s Emissions Trading System, which is designed to cut the carbon dioxide pollution blamed for global warming.

In a highly controversial move last year, the EU added airlines to the ETS regime, sparking howls of protest from the United States and China, which said the move breached international law.

The EC said almost all airlines had fully complied with their ETS obligations, which were consistent with international law and conventions.

However it said eight Chinese carriers, including China Airlines, China Eastern and China Southern, alongside Air India and India’s Jet Airways were at fault.

The eight Chinese airlines were liable for fines of some 2.4 million euros combined while the two Indian groups owed much less, at 30,000 euros.

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